|Roman Bednarik||University of Joensuu, Finland|
|Tersia Gowases||University of Joensuu, Finland|
|Markku Tukiainen||University of Joensuu, Finland|
It is still unknown whether the very application of gaze for interaction has effects on cognitive strategies users employ and how these effects materialize. We conducted a between-subject experiment in which thirty-six participants interacted with a computerized problem-solving game using one of three interaction modalities: dwell-time, gaze-augmented interaction, and the conventional mouse. We observed how using each of the modalities affected performance, problem solving strategies, and user experience. Users with gaze-augmented interaction outperformed the other groups on several problem-solving measures, committed fewer errors, were more immersed, and had a better user experience. The results give insights to the cognitive processes during interaction using gaze and have implications on the design of eye-tracking interfaces.
Bednarik, R., Gowases, T. & Tukiainen, M. (2009). Gaze interaction enhances problem solving: Effects of dwell-time based, gaze-augmented, and mouse interaction on problem-solving strategies and user experience . Journal of Eye Movement Research, 3(1)3, 1-10.